Table of contents:
- What is mitochondria in biology?
- What is the mitochondrion in an animal cell?
- What happens if the mitochondria is missing?
- Why are mitochondria so important?
- What can damage mitochondria?
- What is the role of mitochondria in respiration?
- What are some examples of mitochondria?
- Do bacteria have mitochondria Why?
- How are mitochondria created?
- Does the mitochondria produce ATP?
- Is mitochondria a living thing?
- What is the role of mitochondria in metabolism?
- What is the role of mitochondria in plants?
- What happens to mitochondria as we age?
- What kind of metabolism do mitochondria in eukaryotes perform?
- Is water produced in the mitochondria?
- Do plant cells have mitochondria?
- Where in the mitochondria does citric acid cycle occur?
- What two cycles occur in the mitochondria?
- Why is it called the citric acid cycle?
- What part of mitochondria that contains enzymes is needed in the production of ATP?
- What is the role of mitochondria in generating ATP?
- Where is ATP formed in mitochondria?
- What are the steps of ATP synthesis?
- How is ATP formed in humans?
- What is the function of ATP?
- What are two ways in which ATP is produced in the cells?
What is mitochondria in biology?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
What is the mitochondrion in an animal cell?
🤧😁🤮 The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is the power house of the cell; it is responsible for cellular respiration and production of (most) ATP in the cell. ... The figure depicts the general structure of a typical animal cell.
What happens if the mitochondria is missing?
🤧😁🤮 When the mitochondria are defective, the cells do not have enough energy. The unused oxygen and fuel molecules build up in the cells and cause damage.
Why are mitochondria so important?
🤧😁🤮 Present in nearly all types of human cell, mitochondria are vital to our survival. They generate the majority of our adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are also involved in other tasks, such as signaling between cells and cell death, otherwise known as apoptosis.
What can damage mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs when the mitochondria don't work as well as they should due to another disease or condition. Many conditions can lead to secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and affect other diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy, Lou Gehrig's disease, diabetes and cancer.3
What is the role of mitochondria in respiration?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondria have an important role in cellular respiration through the production of ATP, using chemical energy found in glucose and other nutrients. Mitochondria are also responsible for generating clusters of iron and sulfur, which are important cofactors of many enzymes.
What are some examples of mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 Where are the mitochondria found? Mitochondria are found in the cells of nearly every eukaryotic organism, including plants and animals. Cells that require a lot of energy, such as muscle cells, can contain hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. A few types of cells, such as red blood cells, lack mitochondria entirely.
Do bacteria have mitochondria Why?
🤧😁🤮 They have no nucleus; instead their genetic material is free-floating within the cell. They also lack the many membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells. Thus, prokaryotes have no mitochondria.
How are mitochondria created?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondria and chloroplasts likely evolved from engulfed prokaryotes that once lived as independent organisms. At some point, a eukaryotic cell engulfed an aerobic prokaryote, which then formed an endosymbiotic relationship with the host eukaryote, gradually developing into a mitochondrion.
Does the mitochondria produce ATP?
🤧😁🤮 In the matrix of mitochondria the reactions known as the citric acid or Krebs cycle produce a chemical called NADH. NADH is then used by enzymes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In ATP the energy is stored in the form of chemical bonds.
Is mitochondria a living thing?
🤧😁🤮 Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts not considered Alive? They were once free-living organisms - hundreds of millions of years ago - see “Endosymbiont theory” However, today, because they are incapable of “surviving” on their own, they are no longer considered living - just highly specialized organelles.
What is the role of mitochondria in metabolism?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondria, the cell's powerhouses, produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation to fuel cellular activity. They are also highly dynamic organelles that constantly remodel and turn over.
What is the role of mitochondria in plants?
🤧😁🤮 Mitochondria are the main sources of energy for each cell, and therefore for the plant as a whole. The process for converting raw nutrient materials into usable energy is known as cellular respiration. While energy production is the main function of the mitochondria, they also perform other services for a cell.
What happens to mitochondria as we age?
🤧😁🤮 While all studies are not in complete concordance, the majority of reports have found that aging is generally accompanied by a decline in activity of mitochondrial enzymes (e.g. citrate synthase), a decrease in respiratory capacity per mitochondria (e.g. substrate-dependent oxygen consumption), an increase in ROS ...
What kind of metabolism do mitochondria in eukaryotes perform?
🤧😁🤮 In addition, mitochondria use a process called oxidative metabolism to convert food into energy, and oxidative metabolism yields more energy per food molecule than non-oxygen-using, or anaerobic, methods.
Is water produced in the mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 In the mitochondria, electrons from the molecules NADH and FADH2 are used for energy to power a set of reactions that will ultimate produce ATP, the powerhouse for the cell. Toward the end of cellular respiration in the mitochondria, hydrogen and oxygen ( ) react together, producing water in the process.
Do plant cells have mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic, so they contain membrane-bound organelles like the nucleus and mitochondria.
Where in the mitochondria does citric acid cycle occur?
🤧😁🤮 The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol, and the electron transport chain involves both the intermembrane space and the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pyruvate from glycolysis is transported into the mitochondrial matrix for the citric acid cycle.
What two cycles occur in the mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 The Krebs cycle takes place inside the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle produces the CO2 that you breath out. This stage produces most of the energy ( 34 ATP molecules, compared to only 2 ATP for glycolysis and 2 ATP for Krebs cycle). The electron transport chain takes place in the mitochondria.
Why is it called the citric acid cycle?
🤧😁🤮 The name citric acid cycle is derived from the first product generated by the sequence of conversions, i.e., citric acid. ... Malic acid is converted to oxaloacetic acid, which, in turn, reacts with yet another molecule of acetyl CoA, thus producing citric acid, and the cycle begins again.
What part of mitochondria that contains enzymes is needed in the production of ATP?
🤧😁🤮 The enzymes of the respiratory chain are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and they are essential to the process of oxidative phosphorylation, which generates most of the animal cell's ATP.
What is the role of mitochondria in generating ATP?
🤧😁🤮 The classic role of mitochondria is oxidative phosphorylation, which generates ATP by utilizing the energy released during the oxidation of the food we eat. ATP is used in turn as the primary energy source for most biochemical and physiological processes, such as growth, movement and homeostasis.
Where is ATP formed in mitochondria?
🤧😁🤮 Most of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesized during glucose metabolism is produced in the mitochondria through oxidative phosphorylation. This is a complex reaction powered by the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, which is generated by mitochondrial respiration.
What are the steps of ATP synthesis?
🤧😁🤮 Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose and produces ATP. The stages of cellular respiration include glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid or Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
How is ATP formed in humans?
🤧😁🤮 The human body uses three types of molecules to yield the necessary energy to drive ATP synthesis: fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. ... Over a hundred ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of one molecule of fatty acid, and almost forty ATP molecules result from amino acid and pyruvate oxidation.
What is the function of ATP?
🤧😁🤮 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the source of energy for use and storage at the cellular level. The structure of ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups.
What are two ways in which ATP is produced in the cells?
🤧😁🤮 It consists of a series of stages, beginning in the cell cytoplasm and moving to the mitochondria, the "power plants" of eukaryotic cells. The two ATP-producing processes can be viewed as glycolysis (the anaerobic part) followed by aerobic respiration (the oxygen-requiring part).
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